On their own

    The street is no place for vulnerable young people, but
    sometimes it’s individuals rather than social services who respond.
    Take Pam, a 28-year-old mother with two children of her own.

    “I brought her in one night because she was on the street in the
    early hours and from there it was her choice,” she says. “She
    wanted to be here all the time and she’s been here since

    Pam had seen 15-year-old Janet on the streets and, concerned for
    her safety, invited her in. The girl now lives with the

    They did not know each other before, but Pam had seen her around
    the neighbourhood. Janet’s mother had died some years before and
    her father drank heavily and was violent. Janet herself had been on
    antidepressants since the age of 14 but is now, says Pam, beginning
    to come out of her shell.

    Some teenagers with problems at home decide to leave. It may be for
    a short time, or it may be for good. Some go to live with someone
    else, perhaps someone they know, such as a neighbour or the family
    of a friend. The people involved are usually unaware that this type
    of long-term arrangement falls under the private fostering
    regulations of the Children Act 1989.

    Private fostering occurs when a child younger than 16 is cared for
    and given accommodation by someone other than a parent or close
    relative for 28 days or more. The practice was first brought to the
    public’s attention in the early 1970s, primarily through the work
    of Bob Holman,1 but it aroused little interest at the
    time or in the years that followed.

    It was brought into sharp focus with the death of Victoria Climbie.
    Since her death a great deal has been written and said about
    private fostering, mostly in the context of West African
    communities and traditions.

    Private fostering within West African communities was the first and
    initially the only form of private fostering to be recognised and
    is believed to be still the most prevalent. In more recent years
    many other children have found themselves in situations that fit
    the legal definition of private foster care. Many of these are
    teenagers living with non-relatives.

    In our study of private fostering we have come across a number of
    such cases but have no way of knowing how common they are. Six of
    the eight private foster carers Holman interviewed in his latest
    book were taking care of teenagers or children who were neighbours
    or friends of their own children.2 In contrast, in his
    1973 book, all the carers he talked to were looking after West
    African children.

    Unlike other types of private foster care, looking after teenagers
    involves no initial formal arrangements. The child and the carer
    usually know each other by sight if not by interaction and are
    brought together by the child’s difficult circumstances. The
    child’s parent or parents may be abusing drink or drugs or be
    violent abusive or rejecting of the child. Parental separation,
    mental illness or imprisonment may also be factors.

    The child, who is typically aged 13-15, reaches a point where
    staying at home becomes unbearable or even dangerous, and they
    either actively look for another solution or are lucky enough to be
    noticed by someone who responds to their predicament constructively
    and with kindness.

    Like Pam, many carers are young, single mothers with one or two
    children of their own. Often they have little income. They receive
    no financial help from the parents, who are seldom involved, either
    through lack of interest or hostility. In some cases it is the
    child who avoids the contact. Most of the children are known to
    social services, and quite a few have had a social worker
    previously assigned to them; some have even been taken in by social
    services who then arrange private fostering on their behalf.

    Peter, for example, was thrown out of home and housed in a
    bed-and-breakfast by social services. The 14 year old had problems
    there, being by far the youngest resident, and was subject to
    racism. He finally moved into the house of a friend. Social
    services had asked the mother whether she would take him in and she

    Like Peter, a fair proportion of privately fostered teenagers are
    known to local authorities. Although this suggests they are already
    considered to be children in need, they are not looked after but
    left to fend for themselves.

    Shortages of council foster carers, particularly for teenagers, may
    be partly to blame. According to a recent survey by the Fostering
    Network, an extra 8,000 foster carers (a 22 per cent increase) are
    needed for existing cases alone.3

    With such a shortage of carers it is likely that some children, who
    may need to be taken out of their families, are not given that
    opportunity, simply because there are no placements available. Some
    children are lucky enough to find or be offered an alternative, and
    move out, but once they do their situation changes and they fall
    under the private fostering regulations.

    A recent discussion paper on kinship care stated: “If the child/ren
    have been taken in beforehand by family and friends (not those
    identified as relatives in the Children Act), it could therefore be
    viewed as a private foster arrangement.”4

    Under the private fostering regulations, however, the authority has
    minimal obligations to the child and none to the carer. The
    responsibility of social services to privately fostered teenagers
    and their carers is left wide open to interpretation and

    The same discussion paper reports: “The judgement of what support
    and involvement is required from social services may be different.
    There could be an assessment of the child under section 17 in this

    Many kind-hearted people take care of very vulnerable young people
    without any support. This leaves the carer, the young person and
    the placement all at risk. These private foster carers carry a
    significant responsibility. We need to acknowledge them and ensure
    that these private fostering placements do not break down.

    Sofka Barreau is a research officer on the Department of
    Health-funded private fostering project based at the Thomas Coram
    Research Unit in the Institute of Education, University of London.
    Also working on this project are Charlie Owen and Edwina


    1 R Holman Trading in
    Children: A study of private fostering
    , Routledge, 1973

    2 R Holman The Unknown Fostering, Russell House
    Publishing, 2003

    Shortages in Foster Carers, Fostering
    Network, 2003,


    Friends and Family

    (Kinship Care), Department of Health,

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